• India's Fertility Rate Falls To Below Replacement Level, Sex Ratio Improves Further

    NFHS-5 data shows that there were 1,020 women for 1000 men in the country in 2019-2021

    India’s Total Fertility Rate (TFR), the average number of children per woman, has declined from 2.2 to 2 at the national level while the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased from 54% to 67%, as per the survey released by Health Ministry on Wednesday.

    The factsheets of key indicators on population, reproductive and child health, family welfare, nutrition and others for India and 14 States and UTs clubbed under Phase 2 of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) (2019-21) was released by NITI Aayog's Member, Health, Dr Vinod Kumar Paul, and Union Health and Family Welfare Secretary Rajesh Bhushan. Data from Phase-1 was released in December 2020.

    According to the survey, all Phase 2 states have achieved replacement levels of fertility (2.1) except Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, and Uttar Pradesh. A TFR of 2.1 means there will be neither an increase nor a decrease in population.

    The survey also shows that the overall Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased substantially from 54 per cent to 67 per cent at all-India level and in almost all Phase 2 states/UTs except Punjab.

    The use of modern methods of contraceptives has also increased in almost all states and UTs.

    Meanwhile, the full immunisation drive among children aged 12-23 months has recorded a substantial improvement from 62 per cent to 76 per cent at all-India level. 

    As per the survey, 11 out of 14 states/UTs have more than three-fourth of children aged 12-23 months with fully immunisation and Odisha has the highest immunisation with 90 per cent.

    On comparing the previous National Family Health Survey-4 (NFHS) and NFHS-5 data, it can be seen that there is an increase in full immunisation coverage is done rapidly in many states and UTs. 

    The states/UTs which were surveyed in Phase 2 are Arunachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Odisha, Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

    It may be noted that according to NFHS-3 conducted in 2005-06, the ratio was equal to 1000: 1000 for women and men. It went down to 991:1000 in 2015-16 in NFHS-4. 

    However, for the first time, NFHS-5 data shows that there were 1,020 women for 1000 men in the country in 2019-2021.
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